Saturday, May 23, 2020
We all know that good nutrition, or brain food, can give us energy and help us live longer, more satisfying lifestyles. That doesnt mean you can eat a banana and score 1600 on the RedesignedÃ SAT.Ã But did you know that brain food can actually get you a better test score? Green tea Key Ingredient: PolyphenolsTest Help: Brain protection and mood enhancement According to Psychology Today, polyphenols, the bitter-tasting substance in green tea, can actually protect the brain from your standard wear and tear. Its restorative, which helps growth on the cellular level. Plus, green tea has been known to encourage dopamine production, which is key to a positive mental state. And really, when you are going to take a test, you absolutely must have a positive attitude about it, or youll doom yourself to second-guessing, worry, and fear, which do not good scores make. Eggs Key Ingredient: CholineTest Help: Memory improvement Choline, the B-vitamin-like substance our bodies need, can help your brain do something its good at; remember stuff. Some studies have found that increasing choline intake can improve memory, and egg yolks are among the richest and easiest natural sources of choline. So scramble them up a few months before testing day to see if it helps you remember how to fill in an oval. Wild Salmon Key Ingredient: Omega-3-fatty acidsTest Help: Brain function improvement The omega-3 fatty acid DHA is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid found in the brain. Eating food rich in omega-3s, like wild-caught salmon, can improve brain function and mood. And improved brain function (reasoning, listening, responding, etc.) can lead to a higher test score. Allergic to fish? Try walnuts. Squirrels cant have all the fun. Dark Chocolate Key Ingredient: Flavonoids and CaffeineTest Help: Focus and Concentration We have all heard for a while now that in small quantities, 75 percent cacao content or higher dark chocolate can lower blood pressure and cholesterol because of its powerful antioxidant properties from the flavonoids. You cant watch the news without hearing some report about it, especially around Valentines Day. But one of the best uses of dark chocolate comes from its natural stimulant: caffeine. Why? It can help you focus your energy. Beware, though. Too much caffeine will send you through the roof and can actually work against you when you sit down to test. So eat the dark chocolate in isolation - dont mix it with coffee or tea before you test. Acai Berries Key Ingredients: Antioxidants and Omega-3 fatty acidsTest Help: Brain Function and Mood Acai has become so popular, that it seems clichÃ © to want to consume it. For test-takers, though, the incredibly high antioxidant levels can help blood flow to the brain, which means, in short, itll work better. And, since the acai berry has a ton of omega-3s, it works on your mood, too, so youll be more confident of your abilities as youre working your way through complex math problems. So, on test day, why not try a cup of green tea, some scrambled eggs mixed with smoked wild-caught salmon, and an Acai smoothie followed by a piece of dark chocolate? Worst case scenario? Youve had a healthy breakfast. Best case scenario? You improve your testing score.
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Introduction In the 21st century, there are significant changes in the family law. Child law was focus on Children Act 1989 in England and Wales. It is Ã¢â¬Ëthe most comprehensive enactment on children in our legislative historyÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëundoubtedly one of the most radical and far-reaching reforms of the Ã¢â¬ ¦ law affecting childrenÃ¢â¬â¢. This is where one said Ã¢â¬Å"Children do not live in vacuum, but within a family and an important part of their protection is that the family unit, no matter what form it takes, enjoys adequate and equal legal recognition and protectionÃ¢â¬ . Here, essay will proceed in various parts: Part 1 explains the concept of parental responsibility. Part 2 discuss whether all fathers should get automatic parental responsibility. Part 3 looks at recommendations and reforms on addressing the issues of parental responsibility. Part 1: Parental Responsibility The recent developments in the law of parental responsibility is the wider range of individuals who can acquire it, and this has led some commentators to talk of a degradation in the meaning of parental responsibility. Parental responsibility was introduced by the Children Act 1989. Ã¢â¬ËAll rights, duties, powers, responsibilities and authority which by law a parent of a child has in relation to the child and his property.Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËParental responsibility has a decision-making power and authority to provide effective long-term care for a child.Ã¢â¬â¢ The Law Commission emphasizes the list Ã¢â¬Ëto meet differing needs andShow MoreRelatedParental Responsibility, a Deterrent to Juvenile Crime821 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesParental Responsibility, a Deterrent to Juvenile Crime Growing up in a family where both parents have thirty years experience working in the juvenile justice system, I have learned to value and respect parental responsibility for their children and their childrens behavior. In 1995, a small community in the Willamette Valley, passed an ordinance which held parents responsible in just this way. The ordinance (No. 94-132) that was adopted in Silverton OR, in 1995 charged parents with the misdemeanorRead MoreFather Parental Rights And The Child s Social Development1646 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFather Parental Rights Introduction We are used to the situation when the rights of children and parents in families are clearly defined. We promote widely accepted beliefs, that parents are responsible for their children, and are obliged to take care of children, providing them with home, food, clothes, and various social opportunities. Traditional family will imply the existence of a happy married couple with at least two children, who possess sufficient freedom and areRead More Parental Rights Essay629 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageson the Parental Responsibility Act nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Eighteen cases, in 1990, resulted in a parent serving time in jail for crimes committed by his or her child. In my opinion, I feel that parents should not be held responsible if his or her child commits a crime. There are a couple of reasons why I feel this is not a good law. First, I believe no parent can keep track of their son or daughter 24 hours a day. In a real world parents have far more to do than to monitor their child everyRead MoreÃ¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"Parents can only give good advice or put them on the right paths, but the final forming of a1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesright paths, but the final forming of a persons character lies in their own hands.Ã¢â¬ .Parental responsibility means being responsible for your childÃ¢â¬â¢s wellbeing, looking after your child every day, feeding and clothing your child, making decisions about their schooling, deciding whether to consent to medical treatment and making decisions about their religious upbringing. In parental rights and parental responsibilities the court upheld the power of states to force parents to ensure that their childrenRead MoreLegal Issues For Gay And Lesbian Adoption And Parental Rights1626 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRE: Legal Issues for Gay and Lesbian Adoption and Parental Rights Issue Although adoption can be difficult for any single person or married couple, adoption for the gay and lesbian population presents a unique set of challenges both societal and legal. Whether constitutional or not, special rules apply to same gay and lesbian adoption. Under current legislation, is same sex adoption fully legal and how do the laws on the subject measure with regard to equality to adoption among heterosexualRead MoreThe Expression And Parental Responsibility1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The expression Ã¢â¬Å"Parental ResponsibilityÃ¢â¬ (PR) marks a revolution in the Children Act 1989, aspiring to alter the parent-child relationship from rights to duties and responsibilities. This terminology justified the House of LordsÃ¢â¬â¢ decision in Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech AHA where Lord Fraser commented: Ã¢â¬Å"[Parental rightsÃ¢â¬ ¦ do not exist for the benefit of the parentÃ¢â¬ ¦ rather to enable the parent to perform his duties towards the childÃ¢â¬ ¦] . In ac cordance, s3 Children Act 1989 (CA 1989) definedRead MoreLegislative History Of Parental Right911 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLegislative History of Parental Right In the past, societies were predominately rural in nature, and the bulk of the population lived off agriculture and handicraft. The family was crucial in developing and teaching the children economically-useful skills. The parents had power in deciding how, where, and who educated their children. In this modern time, the government has increasingly taken away power and authority from parents over their children. In the course of this happening, parents cededRead MoreHsc Legal Studies Family Essay1114 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Society moves ahead and the law limps behindÃ¢â¬ Discuss this referring to contemporary issues in family SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions are constantly, and rapidly changing, and consequently this poses significant challenges to the family law system in Australia. A family is a social unit containing individuals related by blood, marriage or other legally recognised relationships. Family law reforms have been implemented over the past three decades, entailing the recognition of same sex couples. FurthermoreRead MoreAnalysis: The Family Law Act of 19751200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCase Law on Family Violence Under the Family Law Act 1975 Introduction The status of women in society has evolved over time. In the ancient days, the place of women was determined by the male population, and the elected for them was under the mandate of their fathers and husbands. Therefore, the law statutory or case law, as a product of society, perpetuated the place of women under the authority of men. This paper will then focus on the status of Family Law before 1975, after the Family Law ActRead MoreShould Parents Be Held Accountable for Their Childrens Crimes?1138 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescrucial role in upbringing their children to become exemplary citizens. Despite this enormous responsibility parent have they face challenges when they find their children adopting wayward course in life. There is a rise in the number of juvenile crimes. One wonders why there is an accelerated increase in the crimes while, on the other hand, a different perspective emerges (Sowell 100-101). What is the responsibility of parents in the development of their children to be model citizens? Should they be responsible
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Deflation of consistency (vs.. Comparability) 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Intermediate Accounting or any similar topic only for you Order Now Relevance vs.. Faithful representation a. Investors want information right now 3. Calculate net assets 4. Adjusting entries related to Prepaid Insurance 5. Fundamental qualities of useful accounting information a. Chart In beginning chapters that has relevance, neutrality, etc. 6. Costs that are expensed vs.. Costs that are capitalized for Internally created Intangible assets a. What did we do with RD costs? 7. Calculate percentage and number of periods for quarterly compounding interest a. Time value of money . Straight-line depreciation a. For an asset that originally had a nine year useful life and decided later that it only had 5 year useful life. Change the depreciation expense 9. Under which cash flows statement category certain satellites fall a. Investing, Financing, or Operating? 10. Review the Ã¢â¬Å"LandÃ¢â¬ problem related to lump-sum purchases a. Look back at chapter with example about buying a huge tract of land, then land was divided, had to allocate cost of the land. B. Boxes are yellow 11. Calculate goodwill a. Purchase price Ã¢â¬â fair value market of the net assets 12. Calculate depletion . Like depreciation, except for natural resources 13. Ordinary annuity vs.. Annuity due a. Ordinary annuity happens at the end of a period b. Annuity due happens at the beginning of a period 14. Where should treasury stock be reported? A. On the balance sheet under stockholders equity 15. Bank reconciliation (compute the correct cash balance) 16. Compute ending balance In allowance for unconvertible accounts given the percentage of receivables method is used a. Calculate the ending balance in allowance for doubtful accounts 17. Diagram depiction of TV concept a. Chart is given b. Present value of an annuity due, present value of an ordinary annuity? 18. Revenue recognition Ã¢â¬â magazine subscriptions a. When do we recognize revenue? B. We recognize revenue when we earn it 19. Identify selling expense 20. Compute the floor when apply lower-of-cost-or-market 21 . Compute double-declining balance depreciation expense 22. Impairment of machinery 23. Land vs.. Land Improvements receivable gross method (vs.. Net method) 26. Compute annual insurance expense given premiums paid and prepaid insurance beginning and ending balances 27. Yield from various compounding interest approaches (yearly vs.. Monthly vs.. Weekly) 28. On what type of intangible is recoverability test used? 29. Events that have no effect on net income 30. Capitalization vs.. Expense of expenditures related to a machine 31 . Ingredients of relevance 32. Major distinction between FAST and APP 33. Entry to write off unconvertible accounts using the allowance method 34. Journal entry related to unea rned revenue 35. What is consigned inventory 36. Accounting for goods in transit purchased f. O. B destination/f. O. B shipping point 37. Compute PEPS 38. Common stock issued to buy machine Ã¢â¬â how does this affect statement of cash lows 39. Why use accrual accounting? 40. Publicly traded companies submit financial statements to whom? 41 . Compute net realizable value 42. What principle is violated when a company switches inventory valuation methods from year to year? 43. Characteristics of a perpetual inventory system 44. Capitalized costs of self-constructed assets 45. Compute net accounts receivable 46. Identify cash and cash equivalents 47. Primary users of general-purpose financial statements 48. Characteristics of plant assets 49. Examples of downward earnings management 50. Calculate goodwill How to cite Intermediate Accounting, Papers
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Cynthia Computer Application-205 Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Microsoft Word-Microsoft Corporation was founded in 1975 lead global in the development and production of software and software-related services and solutions. Initially known for home computers, Microsoft, headquartered in Washington, now offers various operating systems and software for desktop computers. This multinational company strives to help the worldwide business community improve efficiency and productivity. In recent years, this company has battled criticism concerning what some consider monopolistic, anti-competitive business practices. Despite legal setbacks including antitrust violations sanctioned by the US Department of Justice, Microsoft remains a major player in its field. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business environment demands the sharing of data, mobile technology and speedy communication. Microsoft provides tools enabling business to be productive and communicate effectively regardless of location. Outlook serves as the portal for e-mail, tasks, calendar and contacts. Microsoft office line workspace, boasting online storage space, enables users to save access and share documents throughout the world. We will write a custom essay sample on Power point use in work envirnoment or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Mobile Technology like smartphones, which supply the user with advanced computing options allow you to stay connected to businesses. Microsoft office Accounting Express 2008 offers small start-up or at home businesses a resource for accounting processing and procedures. The software includes invoices, budget and finance template and profit and loss statements. Office Excel surpasses manual, paper-based spreadsheets in terms of ease of use and accuracy. Businesses confront an ever-growing number of security threats. Many businesses elect to use Microsoft Vista operating system as a measure to protect their data. Vista boasts account control, troubleshooting and diagnostic features and spyware blocker. Microsoft Security Essentials, introduce in 2009, offers antimalware solutions at no cost to consumers who use Genuine Windows-based PCs. Large business may choose Microsoft Windows Vista Ultimate; Ultimate offers Bit Lockers Drive Encryption for maximum data protection. Microsoft lost its standing as the leading global software company in May 2010. Apple, once on the verge of extinction focused on innovative, new consumer products to generate growth; a popular line of hand-held devices contributed to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s surge in profitability. In contrast, Microsoft, despite sporadic new systems releases, primarily lies mainly on preserving the existing business. Although Microsoft remains a strong player in the market, the company continues to face stiff competition. PowerPoint is an excellent tool for employee training and online learning. Business owners and company managers can use the programs to create compelling and interactive slide shows to demonstrate new products, train new workers and help existing customers get the most out of the products they buy. In fact there are a great many advantages to using PowerPoint as an online learning tool. One of the most powerful things about PowerPoint is the fact that it can corporate animation features and clip art. Its ability to incorporate sound is another powerful benefit of PowerPoint as an online learning tool. The sound functions of this program can make the slide show more interactive and less boring, and too can encourage visitors to stay with the training. Companies can use this interactive feature of PowerPoint to overcome problems and make their training sessions compelling. PowerPoint contains a number of powerful interactivity tools that makes it easy for users to engage the attention of the entire online audience. The improvement done to Excel 2007 and Excel 2010 is the ability to group the dates in the dropdown list into years and months. That means you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to create a new column to identify the years and months of each row using Excel formulas. In Excel 2010, you can customize your own Ribbon tab. It can be used as commands in one place. In this way you do not have to click from one tab to another to find your commonly used command. In the earlier years of Excel (2003 and below), sorting can only be done based on the color coding in the cell, Not only that, you can also sort the records by the font color. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s new in Excel 2002 and 2010. Multiple conditional is not made easy Excel 2007 and 2010. In the older Excel version 2003 and below, we are to count based on one single condition. When using Excel 2003, multiple conditions sum has to be done using the formula SUMPRODUCT or combining all the conditions into one before applying the formula SUMIF to data. With the new Excel 2007, you can now easily sum up the values based on more than one condition by using the SUMIFÃ¢â¬â¢s fomula.
Wednesday, March 25, 2020
Even though that during the course of recent decades, the conceptual soundness of the Psychoanalytical Theory by Sigmund Freud has been increasingly criticized, on account of its presumed Ã¢â¬ËunscientificalnessÃ¢â¬â¢, there can only be a few doubts that it continues to denote a high practical value.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on North by Northwest is an Oedipal Wish Fulfillment Fantasy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More After all, even today it represents a thoroughly legitimate practice, on the part of movie critics, to refer to this specific theory, while striving to expose the innate reasons of why a particular character in the film tends to act in one way or another. In this paper, I will explore the validity of the above-statement at length, in regards to the films North by Northwest and Vertigo by Alfred Hitchcock, while promoting the idea that the manner in which main characters in both movies address life-challenges, reflect what happened to be the deep-seated Oedipal anxieties of the individuals in question. The actual mechanics of how men develop Oedipal anxieties have been revealed by Sigmund Freud in the rather straightforward manner, Ã¢â¬Å"The little man (a boy) wants to have his mother all to himself, that he feels the presence of his father as a nuisance, that he is resentful if his father indulges in any signs of affection towards his mother and that he shows satisfaction when his father has gone on a journey or is absentÃ¢â¬ (1977, p. 332). Because, during the course of their childhood men are rarely capable of opposing their fathers effectively, as they grow, they tend to extrapolate their unconscious frustration, in this respect, in the way they tackle life-challenges Ã¢â¬â especially while remaining in the relationship with women. As Pommier noted, Ã¢â¬Å"The repressed does not merely return, it acts out under a new identity. So-called adulthood is nothing ot her than this disowned childhood, indefinitely disowned through acts and thoughts. Adulthood is nothing but childhood, which materializes itself in this disavowalÃ¢â¬ (1997, p. 13). Hence, the currently adopted definition of the Oedipal complex, as the specific state of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, which is being concerned with the personÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency to project its consciously suppressed psychosexual anxieties, which are rooted in the memories of his childhood years, onto the surrounding social reality. There are sharply defined Oedipal overtones to the very plot of North by Northwest, as it is being concerned with exposing viewers to the consequential phases of the film main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s (Roger Thornhill) quest to discover the elusive identity of George Kaplan.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Throughout the course of this quest, Roger undergoes a specific psychological transfor mation from being a rather indecisive/easily intimidated individual into nothing short of a Ã¢â¬Ëmacho-manÃ¢â¬â¢, capable of opposing his violently minded adversaries on their terms. There is, of course, can be very little doubt that the earlier mentioned scenario is contextually consistent with what Freud used to refer to as the psychosexual stages of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s development, as an individual. The reason for this is quite apparent. In full accordance with how Freud used to perceive the process of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s psychosexual maturation, the process of Roger continuing to seek what he believed to account for his identity, resulted in the character realizing the fact that the visually observable indications of the personÃ¢â¬â¢s existence do not necessarily prove that such a person exists in reality. There are undeniable parallels between the discursive implications of RogerÃ¢â¬â¢s enlightenment, in this respect, and FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s assumption that it is only natural for intellec tually developing people to grow ever more aware of the illusionary subtleties of their sense of super-ego. There is a memorable scene in the film, where Roger tries out KaplanÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes (to figure whether they would match his size), only to realize that these clothes were meant to be worn by a much shorter/smaller man. This scene can be well interpreted, as such that signifies that the socially constructed framework for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of self-identity to able to attain Ã¢â¬ËindividuationÃ¢â¬â¢, cannot possibly contain the concerned individualÃ¢â¬â¢s subliminal and therefore valid identity-defining anxieties.Ã Nevertheless, it is only when we begin to deconstruct the discursive meaning of the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s actual themes and motifs in details that it becomes evident for us that North by Northwest is indeed a strongly Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢ movie. The first thing that comes insight, in this respect, is that it accentuates the Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢ aspects of the re lationship between Roger Thornhill and his mother, Clara. As it appears from the movie, this relationship can be best described as having been unnaturally strong Ã¢â¬â it is not only that Roger calls his mother multiple times a day, but also he takes close to heart her advice, as to how he should be positioning himself in life. This, of course, implies that the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s main character never ceased being emotionally attached to Clara, while trying to appease her in just about every way possible, and that this constituted one of his significant life-priorities. However, we can also deduce that, even though he did treat his mother with affection, Roger continued to experience the unconscious sense of shame/guilt, due to his self-presumed inability to prove himself a Ã¢â¬Ëreal manÃ¢â¬â¢ in her eyes. This could not be otherwise, because there are a plenty of scenes in the movie, which imply that it was a commonplace practice for Mrs. Thornhill to stress out her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s c ognitive infantilism in front of others, which in turn used to traumatize the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s main character emotionally.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on North by Northwest is an Oedipal Wish Fulfillment Fantasy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For example, there is another memorable scene in North by Northwest, where Clara is continuing to give his son disapproving looks, while the latter tries to convince people around that he has indeed been kidnapped. This scene alone suggests that deep in her mind; she regarded Roger nothing short of a Ã¢â¬Ëlittle boyÃ¢â¬â¢, who cannot help remaining utterly defenseless while facing reality (00.24.08). Consequently, this was causing Roger to grow increasingly doubtful of whether his rationale-driven identity of a responsible adult-male was perceptually adequate Ã¢â¬â hence, adding to the sheer intensity of the ensuing anxiety, on RogerÃ¢â¬â¢s part. The reason for thi s is that, just as Freud used to suggest, while unconsciously addressing their subliminal desire to have sex with their mothers, men do strive to affiliate themselves with masculine values, as if this would qualify them as their fathersÃ¢â¬â¢ legitimate replacements. Thus, ClaraÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency to humiliate Roger in front of others, which quite obviously lasted for several years, could not result in anything else but in having her sonÃ¢â¬â¢ feminizedÃ¢â¬â¢ to an extent. This explains why, for the duration of the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s first half an hour, Roger does not appear to be capable of assessing the possible implications of him having been kidnapped adequately. There is another motif in North by Northwest, which can be referred to as clearly Oedipal. It is being concerned with the physical appearance of Eva Marie Saint and the qualitative aspects of the relationship between her and Roger. First, this particular character is being represented in the movie as a Ã¢â¬Ëclassic bl ondÃ¢â¬â¢, with her facial features radiating the spirit of nobleness. We can well deduce that the reason why Roger became attracted to her, in the first place, is that he unconsciously perceived Eva as the physical embodiment of his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s existential virtues Ã¢â¬â even the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s last name invokes the notion of purity. After all, as psychologists are being aware of, men do tend to idealize their mothers to the extent of believing that they are in fact, asexual. However, the menÃ¢â¬â¢s earlier mentioned tendency has nothing to do with the workings of their unconscious id, while being, in essence, the part of the psychological defense mechanism, deployed by men in situations when they face cognitive dissonance.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hence, the symbolic significance of EvaÃ¢â¬â¢s presence in HitchcockÃ¢â¬â¢s film, as an extrapolation of RogerÃ¢â¬â¢s deep-seated anxiety to copulate with his mother Ã¢â¬â although he had this anxiety consciously suppressed, Roger was nevertheless driven by it, while pursuing the relationship with Eva. In essence, he regarded Eva as his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËsurrogateÃ¢â¬â¢. At the same time, however, Roger could not help experiencing the sensation of emotional discomfort, because of that, as the relationship in question never ceased being evocative of the notion of Ã¢â¬ËsinÃ¢â¬â¢. In its turn, this explains why the character of Eva can be well discussed in terms of a femme fatale Ã¢â¬â without wanting it, she nevertheless almost caused Roger to die, after having Ã¢â¬ËscheduledÃ¢â¬â¢ him to meet imaginary George Kaplan in the middle of an open field. Thus, just as it happened to be the case in noir films, the character of femme fatale Eva serves in North by No rthwest the function of intensifying the plotÃ¢â¬â¢s dramatics, as it does prompt male-viewers to get in close touch with their unconscious fears of incest. What has been said earlier, provides us with the discursive framework to elaborate upon what can be considered the Oedipal significance of the character of Vandamme in the movie. After all, there can be only a few doubts as to the fact that, as opposed to what it happened to be the case with Roger Thornhill, Vandamme is being represented as a violently minded, cynical and yet wickedly witty individual. Therefore, we can well speculate that, while competing to win the same woman (Eva) with Vandamm, which happened to emanate the Ã¢â¬ËsaintlyÃ¢â¬â¢ virtues of nobleness and wisdom, the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s main character was in all probability regarding his adversary in terms of an oppressive father. This explains why, up until the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s very end, Roger appeared having been incapable of opposing Vandamm effectively Ã¢â¬â q uite contrary to the fact that, just as his main nemeses, he could be described as an intelligent and physically strong man. The reason for this is that psychologically speaking, Roger did not only thought of Vandamme if terms of a male-competitor, but also in terms of a fatherly figure. Apparently, VandammeÃ¢â¬â¢s very presence used to prove utterly intimidating for the main character, as the latter tended to think that challenging Vandamme to a fair Ã¢â¬ËduelÃ¢â¬â¢ would violate an absolute taboo, within the context of how sons are supposed to refer to their fathers. According to Freud, one of the foremost Oedipal anxieties, on the part of men, which develops when they are aged 3-5 years old, is the fear of uncleanliness Ã¢â¬â while toilet-trained, the boys never cease being afraid of the prospect of failing to act like adults, in this respect. Therefore, it is fully explainable why being an Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢ movie, North by Northwest features some scenes in which Ro gerÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes become ever more soiled Ã¢â¬â hence, causing the main character to continue being submerged ever deeper in his Oedipal anxieties. The most memorable of these scenes is the one where Roger ends up being crop-dusted while hiding from an overflying plane in the open cornfield (01.14.09). As Morris noted, Ã¢â¬Å"In the crop-dusting sequence, Thornhill is driven into the ground and covered with a chemical agent, as if the quest for Ã¢â¬ËgroundsÃ¢â¬â¢ in North by Northwest resulted only in the further vulnerability and degradation of human identityÃ¢â¬ (1997, p. 50). Consequently, RogerÃ¢â¬â¢s suit becomes somewhat unrecognizable. In its turn, this explains why, after having met Eva for the second time, Roger does not talk to her angrily Ã¢â¬â despite the fact that Eva did set him up in the somewhat conniving manner. From the psychoanalytical point of view, this was because, after having been crop-dusted, Roger became endowed with the complex of sublimi nal guilt, due to his earlier first-hand encounter with Ã¢â¬ËfilthinessÃ¢â¬â¢. This, of course, substantially undermined the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of self-worth Ã¢â¬â hence, causing him to end up being out of words while facing his femme fatale.Ã One of the reasons why many grown individuals continue to be endowed with the Oedipal complex is that throughout their adult lives, they never had a chance to rationalize their sex-related unconscious anxieties. In its turn, this is the consequence of these peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s continual exposure to the oppressiveness of the currently dominant socio-cultural discourse, which deems even the mentioning of these anxietiesÃ¢â¬â¢ shamefulÃ¢â¬â¢. The validity of this statement can be illustrated in relation to another famous scene in North by Northwest, which symbolizes the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s unwillingness to allow its members to go about exploring their existential identities, in the way they consider the most appropriate. We refer to t he scene that features Roger and Eva climbing down the Ã¢â¬ËfacesÃ¢â¬â¢ of the Founding Fathers, carved into the Rushmore Mountain (02.12.00). The close analysis of this particular scene reveals that it was not included in the film for emphasizing the grotesque subtleties of Roger and EvaÃ¢â¬â¢s escape alone, but also to promote the idea that the socially upheld provisions of a conventional morality/ethics do prevent many people from being able to address their psychosexual anxieties. After all, the director made a deliberate point in having the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s emotionally charged climax unraveling in the foreground of absolutely unemotional stone-faces. Apparently, this was done to accentuate the central aspect of modern living Ã¢â¬â the fact that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s psychosexual drives, which in the end define the essence of the relationship between the representatives of opposite sexes and consequently Ã¢â¬â the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s very fabric, remain unacknowledged by morali stically minded policy-makers. Given the fact that, as it was pointed out earlier, RogerÃ¢â¬â¢s romantic involvement with Eva appears to be mainly Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢, it will only be appropriate, on our part, to think of the above mentioned scene as yet another indication that, when filming North by Northwest, Hitchcock remained thoroughly aware of the Psychoanalytical theoryÃ¢â¬â¢s main postulates. Another notable aspect of how men extrapolate their Oedipal anxieties is that, while pursuing the relationship with women, they strive to ensure the complete Ã¢â¬ËownershipÃ¢â¬â¢ of the latter. The origins of such menÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency can be traced to the time when they were young boys, who would try to do just about anything, in order to win their mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ uncompromised attention Ã¢â¬â even at the expense of putting their fathers in particular Ã¢â¬ËattentionalÃ¢â¬â¢ disadvantage. Therefore, grown-up Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢ men are dialectically predetermined to exhibit the signs that their unconscious psychosexual agenda is being concerned with objectualizing women in terms of a commodity Ã¢â¬â even when they do not quite realize it consciously. Hence, the discursive significance of the scene, in which Roger extends his hand to Eva, grabs her wrist, and says, Ã¢â¬Å"Come along Mrs. ThornhillÃ¢â¬ (02.15.58) Ã¢â¬â apparently, by having uttered these words, he attempted to do nothing less than taking an effective care of one of his major Oedipal anxieties, once and for all. This anxiety had to do with the fact that, during the course of his childhood, Roger convinced himself that it is specifically a man that successfully addresses the responsibilities of a hunter-gatherer (husband), which is being in a position to have sexual relations with his mother. Consequently, Roger associated the notion of Ã¢â¬ËhusbandÃ¢â¬â¢ with the notion of Ã¢â¬Ëbeing in chargeÃ¢â¬â¢, and the notion of Ã¢â¬Ëbeing in chargeÃ¢â¬â¢ with the menÃ¢ â¬â¢s presumed ability to keep their women subservient. Thus, it is indeed entirely appropriate referring to North by Northwest, as a film where the plotÃ¢â¬â¢s Oedipal themes and motifs accentuate the true significance of the on-screen action. The 1958 film Vertigo represents another example of how Hitchcock used to go about appealing to the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s deep-seated Oedipal anxieties. Its plot is concerned with the story about the former police detective (John Ã¢â¬Å"ScottieÃ¢â¬ Ferguson) striving to uncover the mystery of his friend wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s (Madeleine Elster) periodical transfigurations from a cheerful and intelligent contemporary into presumably a long-dead woman from the 19th century, obsessed with the thoughts of suicide. At the movieÃ¢â¬â¢s end, it is being revealed that the Ã¢â¬ËmysteryÃ¢â¬â¢ is question has in fact been staged and that Ã¢â¬ËMadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢ was Judy Barton Ã¢â¬â a woman that agreed to act as an accomplice in the murder of real M adeleine Elster.Ã One of the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s central Oedipal motifs is the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s condition of acrophobia (the fear of heights), which he developed in the aftermath of his partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s deadly fall from the roof, during the course of a police chase. The rationale behind this suggestion is quite apparent Ã¢â¬â because his newly acquired mental condition caused Scotty to feel existentially incapacitated and therefore Ã¢â¬ËeffeminateÃ¢â¬â¢ to an extent, we can well deduce that ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s unconsciousness regarded the earlier mentioned incident in terms of the act of Ã¢â¬ËcastrationÃ¢â¬â¢. Therefore, there is nothing too odd about the fact that, throughout the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s initial scene, Scotty is shown trying to regain his lost masculinity by the mean of attempting to climb up the steps of a stool, in order to prove his condition being manageable. This, however, turns out quite impossible for him. Eventually, ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s deep-seated realization o f its own inadequateness resulted in the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s main character deciding to follow Madeleine, just as his friend asks him to, in order to figure out what caused her to behave strangely. It is quite clear that, on an unconscious level, Scotty thought of such his decision as having potentially capable to help him to restore his former vision of himself, as a fully functional male. Nevertheless, it is specifically after we get to see the character of Madeleine for the first time, that the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s Oedipal undertones become quite apparent. After all, just as it was the case with the role of Eva in North by Northwest, Madeleine radiates the unmistakable aura of Ã¢â¬ËsainthoodÃ¢â¬â¢ around her. The gray-blond color of MadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢s hair adds to this impression rather substantially. The reason why Hitchcock decided to make Madeleine a blonde-haired person is no different from what used to be the rationale for Renaissance artists to represent the figures of female-saint s in their paintings in the similar manner. Apparently, men are naturally driven to associate the color of white with the notion of purity, which they in turn associate with the notion of motherhood. What makes the MadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance even more Oedipal, is that there is a certain unnaturalness to her Ã¢â¬ËblondnessÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â as if it came as a result of this character having dyed her hair with hydrogen peroxide. This provides us with an additional reason to believe that it were specifically the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s Oedipal anxieties, which caused him to become instantly attracted to her. While being exposed to the sight of this particular femme fatale, Scotty could not help experiencing the sensation of getting in close touch with what used to define his personality back in the past. In other words, it was not ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s attraction with Madeleine, as an individual, which initially prompted him to follow her, but his unconscious awareness of the fact that, despite having not seen Madeline, prior to their first encounter in the film, he nevertheless knew just about everything about her. We can only agree with Hinton, who suggested that, Ã¢â¬Å"While Scottie is looking at Madeleine, or who he believes to be Ã¢â¬ËMadeleine,Ã¢â¬â¢ he is looking for a ghost, or the truth about ghosts: that Ã¢â¬ËMadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ possession is all in her head, that she lacks a Ã¢â¬Ëhead,Ã¢â¬â¢ rationally speakingÃ¢â¬ (1994, p. 4). Without realizing it consciously, Scotty considered Madeleine as the embodiment of his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s womanly virtues. In its turn, this reveals the symbolical significance of the fact that, just as it can be seen in the film, while following Madeleine, Scotty was deriving a particular sensual pleasure out of this essentially voyeuristic process. Such ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency can be well discussed as having been reflective of his childhood memories. As Freud used to point out, even though they know perfectly well that their mothers will never choose them as sexual partners, young boys nevertheless cannot help experiencing a strong sensual attraction towards them. As a result, young boys never skip an opportunity to watch the process of their mothers being undressed, for example Ã¢â¬â even when it requires them to remain hidden in the room or to peek through the doorÃ¢â¬â¢s keyhole. Thus, there can be only a few doubts, as to the Oedipal roots of menÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency to indulge in voyeurism. What is means is that, as he proceeded to follow Madeleine in his car, Scotty was gradually beginning to think of this particular activity, on his part, as such that constituted the value of a Ã¢â¬Ëthing in itselfÃ¢â¬â¢. The validity of this suggestion can be illustrated, in regards to one of the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s memorable scenes, in which Scotty expresses its displeasure with Midge WoodÃ¢â¬â¢s (his female friend) attempt to win his romantic attention, by the mean of having herself depicted wearing the same old-fashioned dress, like the one that used to be worn by MadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢s grandmother Carlotta (01.01.46). Apparently, it never occurred to Midge that the reason why Scotty used to take an interest in listening to the stories about MadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢s grandmother had nothing to do with his mental fixation on the particulars of this womanÃ¢â¬â¢s physical appearance. Instead, it had to do with the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s subtle understanding that, while finding out more about Madeleine/her grandmother, he was regaining the long-lost part of his self-identity. The above-statement also helps to explain the persistence, with which Scotty went about dressing up Judy (who acted as Ã¢â¬ËMadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢, before the personÃ¢â¬â¢s presumed death, due to having fallen off the monasteryÃ¢â¬â¢s tower). Because of how he worked, in this respect, we can well assume that the relationship between Scotty and Madeleine was in fact Ã¢â¬ËunidirectionalÃ¢â¬â¢. That is, i t was not Madeleine in flesh in blood, who Scotty believed to be in love with, but rather this womanÃ¢â¬â¢s fetishized image, which in turn was nothing but the visually observable sublimation of the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s Oedipal longings. The assumption that in the HitchcockÃ¢â¬â¢s film Scotty acts as an individual endowed with the Oedipal complex also sheds light on the discursive significance of the scene in which he fails to prevent Ã¢â¬ËMadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢ from committing suicide, by the mean of jumping of the monasteryÃ¢â¬â¢s tower (00.52.28). This is because, according to the Freudian conceptualization of the concerned anxietyÃ¢â¬â¢s effects, Oedipal individuals experience two diametrically opposite desires Ã¢â¬â the desire to achieve a sexual satisfaction with the object of their psychosexual fixation, on the one hand, and the desire not to have information about this revealed to the morally oppressive society, on the other. In its turn, this can be explained by the fact that, while addressing life-challenges, people are being forced to observe the conventional code of behavioral ethics, adopted within the society Ã¢â¬â hence, allowing their super-ego to define the qualitative aspects of how they position themselves in life. However, as a result, people often develop some life-impending Ã¢â¬ËsecondaryÃ¢â¬â¢ anxieties, such as the fear of committing a Ã¢â¬ËsinÃ¢â¬â¢ and allowing the society to find out about it. Because the workings of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëarchetypical unconsciousnessÃ¢â¬â¢ inevitably cause them to believe that the sinÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate consequence is death, they cannot help acting in the manner that their super-ego prescribes them to Ã¢â¬â hence, the phenomenon of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s endowment with what Freud used to refer to as the Ã¢â¬Ëinstinct of deathÃ¢â¬â¢. What it means is that, on an unconscious level, Scotty was aware that his relationship with Madeleine was bound to end up in tragedy. This is the reason why, even though there were strongly ominous overtones to how Madeleine asked him to forget her in the scene where she was about to jump off the tower, Scotty did not move a finger to prevent Madeleine from realizing her suicidal intention before it was too late. This is even though he did not hesitate even for a second jumping in the water after Madeleine when she tried to kill herself the first time. Apparently, at this particular moment in the film, ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëinstinct of deathÃ¢â¬â¢, enforced upon him by his realization of the Ã¢â¬ËsinfulÃ¢â¬â¢ nature of his relationship with Madeleine, prevailed. After the incident, Scotty is shown dealing with acute depression. The sensation of depression, on his part, was so intense that the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s main character ended up undergoing psychiatric treatment in the clinic. In its turn, ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s depression was triggered by his sense of guilt, on account of his failure to save Madeleine. This once again confir ms the appropriateness of the suggestion that, throughout Vertigo, Scotty acts as an Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢ individual, in the classical sense of this word. After all, as we are well aware of, when trying to maintain the posture of the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s productive members, people have no other option but to suppress their Oedipal anxieties consciously, which cannot result in anything else but in creating prerequisites for these peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mental states to grow increasingly deteriorated. The processÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate consequence is depression. In ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s case, his depression appears to have been brought about by not as much the sensation of loss, on his part, but rather by his unconscious realization that, even while adult, he proved himself inadequate in the relationship with his Ã¢â¬Ësubliminal motherÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â Madeleine. As it was implied earlier, it is in the very nature of Oedipal men to idealize their mothers as Ã¢â¬ËsaintlyÃ¢â¬â¢ figures. Such their te ndency can be discussed in terms of a psychological defense mechanism Ã¢â¬â while suspecting that it is precisely their unworthiness, as thoroughly dependent individuals, which prevents them from being able to have a sexual intercourse with their mothers, young boys natural tend to refer to the objects of their latent sexual desires, as being somewhat Ã¢â¬ËunapproachableÃ¢â¬â¢. The reason for this is that it helps boys to reduce the strength of the anxiety of worthlessness, on their part. At the same time, however, it causes boys to think of women, in general, as something that they are not really in reality, which in turn is being capable of incapacitating these boys cognitively, by the time they reach adulthood. This helps us to explain the significance of the scene, in which Scotty drags Ã¢â¬ËMadeleineÃ¢â¬â¢/Judy to the top of the tower, as if his condition of acrophobia did no longer have any effect on him (02.07.04). Once, he realized the illusionary essence of his s elf-constructed image of Madeleine, as a Ã¢â¬ËsaintlyÃ¢â¬â¢ figure, ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s acrophobia evaporated into thin air, because it occurred to him that there was in fact nothing Ã¢â¬ËsinfulÃ¢â¬â¢ about his attraction to this woman, in the first place. Therefore, by dragging Judy up the staircase, Scotty wanted to confirm to himself once again that it is namely menÃ¢â¬â¢s possession of a penis, which defines the manner in which they pursue relationships with women Ã¢â¬â in ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, the monasteryÃ¢â¬â¢s tower became nothing short of a phallic symbol. In its turn, this allowed ScottyÃ¢â¬â¢s id to escape the oppressive boundaries of his super-ego, which empowered the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s main character to an extent that he instantaneously forgot about his fear of heights. In other words, the concerned scene subtly suggests that it is only when men become aware of the fact that they themselves contribute to the sensation of having been Ã¢â¬ËcastratedÃ¢â¬â¢, in the allegorical sense of this word, by the mean of adopting a rather uncritical view of women, that they may cease being Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢. In this respect, the earlier mentioned message, read between the sceneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËlinesÃ¢â¬â¢, appears entirely consistent with how the Theory of Psychoanalysis addresses the issue of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s endowment with the Oedipal complex. After all, according to this theory, the pathways towards the reestablishment of emotional equilibrium, inside the Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢ individualÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, cannot be discussed outside of the concerned personÃ¢â¬â¢s willingness to recognize the counter-beneficiary effects of how his super-ego assess the surrounding psychosexual reality. I believe that the earlier deployed line of argumentation, in defense of the suggestion that there are indeed some clearly Oedipal overtones in the films North by Northwest and Vertigo, is entirely consistent with the paperÃ¢â¬â¢s initial thesis. It is under stood, of course, that many insights, contained in this paper, are somewhat speculative. This, however, does not undermine these insightsÃ¢â¬â¢ overall legitimacy, because even today it remains a commonplace practice, among psychoanalysts, to go about identifying the suspected psychopathology in a person, by the mean of exposing the objectiveness of his or her subliminal anxieties. In this respect, we did not act any differently. Thus, it will only be appropriate, on our part, to conclude this paper by reinstating once again that the films North by Northwest and Vertigo by Alfred Hitchcock do contain clues as to both: what causes people to become Ã¢â¬ËOedipalÃ¢â¬â¢ and what they can do, in order to have the acuteness of their Oedipal anxieties substantially reduced. References Freud, Z 1977, Introductory lectures on Psychoanalysis, New York, Norton. Hinton, L 1994, Ã¢â¬ËA Ã¢â¬Å"womanÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ view: the Vertigo frame-upÃ¢â¬â¢, Film Criticism, vol. 19. no. 2, pp. 2-2 2. Morris, C 1997, Ã¢â¬ËThe direction of Ã¢â¬Å"North by NorthwestÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢, Cinema Journal, vol. 36. no. 4, pp. 43-56 North by Northwest, 1959. Film. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. USA: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Pommier, G 1997, Ã¢â¬ËThe psychoanalytic concept of childhoodÃ¢â¬â¢, Critical Quarterly, vol. 39. No. 3, pp. 8-15. Vertigo, 1958. Film. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. USA: Paramount Pictures. This essay on North by Northwest is an Oedipal Wish Fulfillment Fantasy was written and submitted by user Allan Powers to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Research Paper on Insurance The conception of insurance is the spreading of risks for a few individuals, among many. This is done when individuals and businesses pay a premium to an insurance company to cover them in case of a catastrophic occurrence. In other words, we all pay premiums in case something happens to one of us. Believe it or not, this simple concept is what drives the existence of all insurance companies. As much as we all complain about insurance, we all have it. If something happens, we canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to be without it. The attached article from Ã¢â¬Å"Business InsuranceÃ¢â¬ magazine, an insurance industry publication outlines some ideas that make me think our insurance rates are going to go a lot higher before they come down at all. In order for me to make my case, I think itÃ¢â¬â¢s necessary to review a basic concept of insurance that is referred to in this article. The very concept that Im referring to is called an underwriting profit. The insurance industry would have us believe that underwriting and rating insurance policies is a complicated procedure. However, when you break it down to its simplest form, insurance is just like any other business. Profits are whatÃ¢â¬â¢s left when you subtract expenses (dollars out) from revenues (dollars in). In insurance terms, this means a combined expense ratio far enough below 100 % to allow for an acceptable profit. In other words, how much is it going to cost to underwrite, issue, and service a policy and how much does the insurance company expect to pay in claims? If there is money left, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s an underwriting profit. If the expenses and losses are higher than the premium collected, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s an underwriting loss. If the insurance industry accepts the concept laid out in the article by the chairman of LloydÃ¢â¬â¢s of London, Peter Levene, my opinion is not only are insurance rates going to rise but all kinds of coverage is going to be harder to get. If the insurance companies can no longer count on high incomes from their investments, their profits have to come from another source. Us, the customers. While this may not seem entirely fair, IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure very few people complained when rates were low. The disturbing point Lord Levene eludes to is that he advocates pursuing an underwriting profit even when investment returns are high. This is disturbing because in the past as the investment markets changed and higher returns were being earned. The insurance customer shared in these returns in the form of lower premiums and easier underwriting. For example, the premium for a particular business when investments are bad might be $10,000. In the past, when investments were good, that same busine ss might have paid only $6,000 for their coverage. Assuming Lord LeveneÃ¢â¬â¢s position is accepted, that $10,000 premium would remain constant regardless of how much the insurance company was making on their investments and would only rise if the markets turned even worse. To make things even more difficult, if this business had suffered any claims, they are at greater risk of having their coverage cancelled. At that point, this company would be forced to find a new insurance carrier. This is where things could begin to spiral out of control. Assuming the new insurance carrier is also looking for an underwriting profit, they would be forced to add the cost of what they consider to be a higher risk of claims to their expenses and this $10,000 policy might now cost $15,000. The customer now has a decision to make. Accept the higher premium and absorb the cost or pass this cost to their own customers in the form of a price increase. At this point you may be wondering how all of this relates to why Ã¢â¬Å"my rates are so high.Ã¢â¬ My thinking is simply this. If the business insurers subscribe to Lord LeveneÃ¢â¬â¢s theories, then the personal insurers will probably not be very far behind. I have the unique perspective of a father with twenty-three years experience in the insurance industry, which gives me some insight as to Ã¢â¬Å"why my rates are so high.Ã¢â¬ I pay around $3,000 a year for my car insurance. According to my father, the reason is that the insurance companies feel that due to my age and lack of driving experience, I am more likely to have an accident. This likelihood comes back to me in the form of higher rates. While I may never have that accident, other members of my age group have in the past been in more accidents than any other age group. Statistically, that makes me a less desirable risk than someone in another group. For example, my parents pay less than the $3,000 I pay to insure both their cars. Another factor is geography. Where you live has as much to do with your rates as what group you belong to and what your claims history is. While my $3,000 premium seems ridiculously high, the premium for the same coverage might be as much as $4,000 just ten miles west of where I live. Move me to Brooklyn and that rate would be more than $7,000. This seems extremely unfair to me. Why should where I live have any bearing on my rates? The answer apparently has to do with the same logic that makes younger drivers pay more than more experienced drivers. It seems that insurance companies not only group drivers by age but by other factors, such as population density (how many more cars are there in a given geographical area?), claim frequency (how many more claims are there in Brooklyn vs. Eastern Suffolk County?). The companies also take in to account moving violations. Statistically speaking again, a driver with multiple traffic violations is an accident waiting to happen. Add to that, the logic that someone who makes a habit of passing stop signs or red lights is individually increasing the probability that they will be involved in some type of loss. People who drive fast not only have the increased probability of loss but also because of the speed, increase the probability of a more severe loss. Thereby costing the insurance company, and all of us, that much more money. This is why insurance companies either refus e insurance or at the very least charge much more for drivers with violations on their records. While all of this barely scratches the surface of what insurance companies look at when determining their rates, it does give us a pretty good idea of what we can do to keep our rates as low as possible. One thing would be to live in an area with less people and lower crime rates. For most of us, this is impossible. So what can we do without moving so far into the country that our nearest neighbors live five miles away? For one thing, avoid accidents and donÃ¢â¬â¢t pile up the moving violations. All I can say is that as unfair as insurance seems, ultimately the blame for higher rates rests with all of us. If no one ever had an accident, all we would have to insure against would be fire and theft. Since no one ever having an accident is not realistic, we can thank the powers that be for greed. If the insurance companies can find a way to make more money, you can bet they will do it. So while Lord LeveneÃ¢â¬â¢s theories are disturbing, we can count on the overriding greed of the insurance companies to offset the theory of always making an underwriting profit. What I am trying to say is that when the investment markets are good, insurance companies make more money. As long as they can make more money by writing more policies at lower rates then by looking for that pie in the sky underwriting profit, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s exactly what they will do. You can always tell when an insurance company is doing well in the market. Rate increases are few and far between and the company is writi ng more policies. When the market turns bad as it is now, insurance companies raise rates and reduce the number of new policies they sell. When you consider all of the factors that go into what an insurance company charges, combined with all the different laws and regulations they are required to comply with from state to state, itÃ¢â¬â¢s understandable why rates are what they are at any given time. So I guess the answer to my question is not as easy as my first thought. Between investment markets, geography, age group, driving experience, prior loss history, and driving record, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a wonder how they come with any rates that we can afford and still stay in business. I am not sure if I agree or disagree with the logic and statistics used by the insurance companies but I am sure of one thing. My rates are too high! You can also order a custom essay, term paper or research paper on insurance at our professional custom writing service which provides students with high-quality custom written papers. Here is a list of the most popular insurance research paper topics: Ã The history of insurance law in Britain Ã Insurance Reform Ã Insurance Planning Ã Insurance companies should be allowed to use genetic testing before giving someone health or life insurance. Ã High insurance rates have nursing homes going bareÃ How Insurance Works Ã Importance of Car Insurance Ã Global insurance Ã Reliable Insurance Case Study Ã Quicken Insurance Case Study
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Compare between Saudi Arabia and the United States in the concept of the implementation of the provisions of arbitrators - Research Paper Example There are many reasons why parties opt to have their disagreements determined through arbitration, especially when it comes to international matters (Roy 921). Such reasons comprise of the need to avoid the local practices related to lawsuits in national courts, need to obtain a faster, as well as a more efficient verdict, the relative enforceability of arbitral awards and arbitration agreements as compared to national court judgments and forum selection clauses, the profitable expertise of arbitral tribunals, the parties' sovereignty to select and plan the arbitral procedures, discretion and other merits (Roy 921). While arbitration is guided by the UN International Commercial Arbitration Act of 1985, nations have modified the law to come up with their own arbitration laws (Roy 921). The United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany and Saudi Arabia among others, have their own unique arbitration laws, even though they echo some of the provisions in offered in the UN Internatio nal Commercial Arbitration Act of 1985. Saudi Arabia recently (2012) signed into law their new Arbitration Act and the United States has had a law standing on this subject since 1925 that was amended in 2007. This paper will compare between Saudi Arabia and the United States in the concept of the implementation of provisions by arbitrators. Arbitration in the United States Arbitration, in line with the United States law, is a type of alternative dispute resolution, which is a legal option to lawsuits whereby the groups to a dispute concur to submit their relevant positions to a neutral third party for resolution. In reality, arbitration is mainly utilized as an alternative to judicial hearings, especially when the judicial proceedings are perceived as too expensive, slow or inclined to one party (Auerbach 59). Arbitration, in the United States, is also utilized by societies as an alternate for formal law because they either do not have a formal law or the formal law is too harsh (Mc Laughlin 248). Labor arbitration, in the United States, comes in two forms: interest arbitration, which grants a way for settling disputes on the terms to be incorporated in a fresh contract when the groups are not capable of agreeing, along with injustice arbitration, which grants a way for settling disputes over the application and interpretation of a collective bargaining treaty (McLaughlin 248). Provisions to the agreements are not implementable at common law, but once the groups have actually forward a pending disagreement to an arbitrator or an arbitration tribunal, the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s judgment is typically implementable. The logic for this was that the influence of the arbitrator arose exclusively from the joint consent of the groups to his authority (McLaughlin 249). However, by the moment a disagreement reached the level where one group opted to take it to an arbitrator or an arbitration tribunal, the other normally opted to take the matter to court instead. Therefore, devoid of any the consent of both groups to the arbitratorÃ¢â¬â¢s jurisdiction, he/she does not have the power to settle the case (Auerbach 59). Arbitration in the Saudi Arabia Following the heels of the recent reform of the arbitration law in Saudi Arabia, a new law came into effect on the March of 2012 (Cueto 1).